In the coming years, humanity may once again set foot on the lunar surface. If you’re wondering when astronauts might return to the moon and what they plan to do there, read on for a deep dive into upcoming lunar missions.

Here’s a quick answer if you’re short on time: NASA aims to land the first woman and next man on the moon by 2025 through the Artemis program. Key goals include establishing a sustainable presence and preparing for future missions to Mars.

In this approximately 3000 word guide, we’ll explore the various government and commercial programs seeking to send astronauts back to the moon this decade. We’ll look at the motivations behind lunar return missions, key milestones and technology involved, as well as the future of moon bases and lunar tourism.

Background on Past and Upcoming Moon Missions

Apollo Missions: The First Boots on the Moon

The Apollo missions, conducted by NASA in the 1960s and 1970s, were the first and only manned missions to land humans on the Moon. The Apollo program consisted of a series of missions, with Apollo 11 being the most famous, as it successfully landed two astronauts, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, on the lunar surface in July 1969.

This historic achievement marked a significant milestone in human space exploration and sparked a wave of excitement and curiosity about the Moon.

Following Apollo 11, five more successful missions took place, with a total of twelve astronauts having walked on the Moon. These missions provided valuable scientific data and samples that helped us understand more about the Moon’s geology, composition, and history.

However, after Apollo 17 in 1972, no humans have returned to the Moon.

Why Return to the Moon Now?

The idea of returning to the Moon has gained renewed interest in recent years, with several space agencies and private companies planning future lunar missions. There are several reasons why returning to the Moon is considered a priority:

  1. Scientific Exploration: The Moon holds numerous scientific mysteries that still need to be unraveled. By returning to the Moon, scientists hope to gain a deeper understanding of its formation, its potential resources, and its potential as a stepping stone for future space exploration.
  2. Technological Advancements: Returning to the Moon will push the boundaries of technology, leading to advancements in robotics, space habitats, and resource utilization. These technological developments can have far-reaching applications for future space missions, including missions to Mars.
  3. Commercial Opportunities: The Moon has the potential to become a hub for commercial activities, such as mining rare resources, conducting scientific research, and even tourism. Several private companies are already investing in lunar missions with the aim of exploiting these commercial opportunities.
  4. International Collaboration: Moon missions provide an opportunity for international collaboration, bringing together different countries and space agencies to work towards a common goal. This collaboration can foster diplomatic relations and promote peaceful cooperation in space exploration.

NASA’s Upcoming Artemis Missions

NASA’s Artemis program is an ambitious undertaking that aims to return humans to the Moon by 2024. The program is named after the Greek goddess of the Moon and is set to build on the successes of the Apollo missions from the 1960s and 1970s. Let’s take a closer look at the upcoming Artemis missions.

Artemis I

The first mission of the Artemis program, Artemis I, is scheduled to launch in November 2021. This uncrewed mission will test the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Orion spacecraft, which will serve as the primary mode of transportation for the astronauts.

Artemis I will be a crucial step in proving the capabilities of these new systems and pave the way for future crewed missions.

Artemis II

Artemis II, planned for 2023, will be the first crewed mission of the Artemis program. Astronauts will orbit the Moon, but will not land on its surface. This mission will provide valuable experience and allow NASA to test the systems necessary for lunar landings.

Artemis III and Establishing a Lunar Base

The highlight of the Artemis program will be Artemis III, which aims to land the first woman and the next man on the Moon by 2024. This mission will mark a historic milestone in human space exploration and open up new possibilities for scientific research and future lunar colonization.

Building on the successes of Artemis III, NASA plans to establish a sustainable lunar base through a combination of robotic and crewed missions. This lunar base will serve as a stepping stone for future deep space exploration, including crewed missions to Mars.

Long-Term Goals: Sustainable Moon Presence and Mars

NASA’s long-term goals for the Artemis program include establishing a sustainable presence on the Moon. This involves developing technologies to extract resources, such as water ice, from the lunar surface and utilizing them for life support systems and propellant production.

By leveraging the Moon as a testing ground, NASA aims to gain valuable insights and prepare for crewed missions to Mars.

For more information on the Artemis program and NASA’s future lunar missions, you can visit the official NASA Artemis website.

Other Government Moon Programs

While NASA’s Artemis program has garnered significant attention, it is important to acknowledge that other countries have their own ambitious lunar missions in the works. Here is a closer look at some of the notable government moon programs beyond the United States:

China’s Chang’e Lunar Missions

China has emerged as a major player in lunar exploration with its Chang’e missions. Named after the Chinese moon goddess, these missions have achieved remarkable milestones in a relatively short span of time.

The Chang’e-3 mission, launched in 2013, successfully landed a rover named Yutu on the moon’s surface, making China only the third country to achieve a soft landing on the moon.

Since then, China has continued its lunar endeavors with the Chang’e-4 mission, which made history by becoming the first spacecraft to land on the far side of the moon. This groundbreaking mission provided valuable insights into the little-explored region and opened up new possibilities for future lunar exploration.

China’s upcoming Chang’e-5 mission aims to bring back lunar samples, a feat that has not been accomplished since the 1970s. This mission, scheduled for launch in late 2020, will further contribute to our understanding of the moon’s geology and potentially pave the way for future human missions.

Russia’s Luna-Glob Missions

Russia, with its rich history in space exploration, is also actively pursuing lunar missions through its Luna-Glob program. This series of missions aims to study the moon’s south pole and explore its potential for resources like water ice.

The first mission of the Luna-Glob program, scheduled for launch in 2021, will deploy a lander and an orbiter to gather data about the moon’s surface and environment. This will lay the groundwork for subsequent missions, including the ambitious goal of returning samples from the moon by 2027.

Russia’s Luna-Glob missions demonstrate the country’s commitment to pushing the boundaries of lunar exploration and expanding our knowledge of Earth’s closest celestial neighbor.

India’s Chandrayaan Missions

India joined the exclusive club of lunar explorers with its Chandrayaan missions. The Chandrayaan-1 mission, launched in 2008, made significant discoveries, including evidence of water molecules on the moon’s surface.

Building on this success, India launched the Chandrayaan-2 mission in 2019, which aimed to land a rover on the moon’s south pole. While the lander did not successfully land as planned, the orbiter continues to provide valuable data about the moon’s surface and atmosphere.

India has already announced plans for Chandrayaan-3, which will focus solely on the mission’s lander and rover components. This demonstrates India’s determination to overcome challenges and further advance its lunar exploration program.

These government moon programs showcase the global interest and commitment to exploring and understanding our celestial neighbor. Collaboration and knowledge-sharing between countries will undoubtedly accelerate our progress and bring us closer to a future where human boots will once again grace the lunar surface.

Commercial Moon Plans: SpaceX, Blue Origin, and More

SpaceX Starship and Moon Tourism

SpaceX, founded by Elon Musk, has been at the forefront of the commercial space race. With their ambitious plans, they aim to not only reach Mars but also establish a human presence on the Moon. The key player in SpaceX’s lunar missions is their Starship, a fully reusable spacecraft designed for long-duration space travel.

The Starship is expected to play a crucial role in future Moon tourism. SpaceX envisions a future where regular civilians can embark on lunar adventures, experiencing the awe-inspiring beauty of our celestial neighbor firsthand.

This would mark a significant milestone in human space exploration, making space more accessible to the general public.

With the Starship’s impressive capabilities, SpaceX aims to transport not just astronauts but also artists, scientists, and even tourists to the Moon. This innovative approach to space travel opens up new possibilities for research, creativity, and ultimately, the expansion of humanity beyond Earth.

Blue Origin’s Blue Moon Lander

Blue Origin, led by Jeff Bezos, is another prominent player in the commercial space industry. Their lunar ambitions are fueled by the development of the Blue Moon lander. This spacecraft is designed to deliver payloads, rovers, and eventually humans to the lunar surface.

The Blue Moon lander boasts a flexible and modular design, capable of carrying a variety of payloads. This versatility makes it an ideal choice for not only scientific missions but also for supporting future lunar outposts and infrastructure development.

Blue Origin’s long-term vision includes establishing a sustainable human presence on the Moon. By leveraging the capabilities of the Blue Moon lander, they aim to lay the foundation for future lunar colonies and exploration.

Lunar Outposts by Other Companies

While SpaceX and Blue Origin have garnered significant attention, they are not the only players in the commercial Moon race. Several other companies have also set their sights on the lunar surface.

For example, companies like Astrobotic and Intuitive Machines are focused on delivering payloads and conducting scientific experiments on the Moon. Their missions contribute to our understanding of lunar resources and the potential for future human exploration.

Additionally, companies like Moon Express and ispace are actively working towards establishing lunar outposts. These outposts would serve as bases for research, resource utilization, and potentially as stepping stones for further exploration of the Moon and beyond.

It’s an exciting time in the realm of lunar exploration, with various commercial entities pushing the boundaries of what’s possible. As these companies forge ahead with their innovative plans, we can expect to witness significant advancements in our understanding of the Moon and our capabilities in space.

Challenges and Prospects for Future Lunar Exploration

Technical and Engineering Hurdles

The prospect of future lunar missions brings with it a host of technical and engineering challenges. One of the primary hurdles is the development of spacecraft and landers capable of safely transporting astronauts to and from the Moon’s surface.

These vehicles must be able to withstand the harsh lunar environment, including extreme temperatures, radiation, and the absence of an atmosphere.

Additionally, there is the issue of creating sustainable life support systems that can provide astronauts with the necessary resources, such as air, water, and food, during extended stays on the Moon. This requires innovative technologies and efficient use of limited resources.

Furthermore, the development of reliable communication systems that can handle the vast distances between Earth and the Moon is crucial for ensuring the success of future lunar missions.

To overcome these technical and engineering hurdles, scientists, engineers, and space agencies around the world are actively working on new technologies and solutions. NASA’s Artemis program, for example, is focused on developing the necessary infrastructure and capabilities to sustain a long-term human presence on the lunar surface.

Private companies, such as SpaceX and Blue Origin, are also investing in the development of advanced spacecraft and landers that can support future lunar missions.

Funding and Sustainability Questions

While there is significant interest in future lunar exploration, one of the major challenges is securing the necessary funding to support these missions. The cost of developing and launching spacecraft, as well as maintaining a sustained presence on the Moon, is substantial.

Governments and space agencies must allocate resources to prioritize lunar exploration amidst competing priorities.

Another aspect of sustainability is the utilization of lunar resources. The Moon is rich in valuable materials, such as water ice in the polar regions and rare earth elements. Accessing and utilizing these resources could significantly reduce the cost and logistical challenges of future lunar missions.

However, questions regarding ownership rights and international cooperation need to be addressed to ensure fair and equitable utilization of lunar resources.

Despite these funding and sustainability challenges, there is growing interest from both public and private sectors in leveraging the Moon’s resources for scientific research, space tourism, and potentially even as a stepping stone for future missions to Mars and beyond.

Geopolitical Competition on the Lunar Frontier

The future of lunar exploration is not solely driven by scientific curiosity and technological advancements. There is also a geopolitical dimension to consider. As countries and space agencies vie for dominance in space exploration, the Moon has become a new frontier for competition.

Historically, the United States and Russia have been the leading players in lunar exploration. However, in recent years, other countries, such as China and India, have made significant strides in their lunar programs.

China, for example, successfully landed a rover on the far side of the Moon in 2019, becoming the first country to achieve this feat.

This geopolitical competition on the lunar frontier raises questions about collaboration, information sharing, and potential conflicts. International agreements and cooperation frameworks, such as the Artemis Accords proposed by NASA, aim to establish guidelines and principles for lunar exploration to ensure peaceful and sustainable exploration.


After decades focused on low Earth orbit and Mars, the moon is once again emerging as a priority destination in space. Through ambitious government-led programs like NASA’s Artemis and rising commercial interest, it’s likely only a matter of time before astronauts embark on lunar voyages again.

While establishing a permanent human presence on the moon presents daunting technical and financial challenges, the scientific and economic potential makes it a goal worth striving for. If achieved, lunar bases could act as a springboard for deeper solar system exploration and benefit life on Earth through space technology spinoffs.

Will you see boots on the moon in your lifetime? If global space programs can align vision with sufficient resources and sustained execution, it’s quite possible a lunar return could happen before the end of this decade.

Regardless of the exact timeline, the moon is back as a focal point of humanity’s spacefaring ambitions.

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